Situational Leadership Model - Hersey and Blanchard Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard first published their Situational Leadership® Model in their 1982 book, Management of Organizational Behaviour: Utilizing Human Resources . THE place that brings real life business, management and strategy to you. These theories mainly focus on task requirements, peers’ expectation and behavior, employees’ characteristics, expectations and behavior, organizational culture and policies, etc. Situational leadership theory talks about four different leadership styles and how it relates to subordinate’s confidence or ability to carry out a task. This means that followers are experienced at the required task and comfortable with their own ability to do it well and independently. An important note about Hersey and Blanchard to start with! [8]. Effective leadership is task-relevant, and the most successful leaders are those who adapt their leadership style to the performance readiness (ability and willingness) of the individual or group they are attempting to lead or influence. The situational leader. They are able and willing to not only do the task, but to take responsibility for it. Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Model, Follower’s Psychological Readiness (Psychological Development), Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window), Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window), Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window). Blanchard's Situational Leadership II makes some changes to these, relabelling all as development levels rather than maturity levels to avoid stigma around the idea of immaturity, and making some distinctions in M1 and M2, now D1 and D2 in this subsequent version. This means to what extent a leader puts emphasis on building and maintaining a good relationship with subordinates by paying attention to the security, well-being and personal needs of the employees. Individuals are more able to do the task; however, they are demotivated for this job or task. Situational leadership® is a leadership model, which has been largely influenced and molded by its early developers Ken Blanchard and Paul Hersey. [4], The situational leadership II (SLII) model acknowledged the existing research of the situational leadership theory and revised the concepts based on feedback from clients, practicing managers, and the work of several leading researchers in the field of group development. In this section we’ll examine the early development of the theory in late-60s to 70s, before looking at how the leadership model has evolved from the early inception. Ansoff Matrix: How to Grow Your Business? This approach to leadership suggests the need to match two key elements appropriately: the leader’s leadership style and the followers’ maturity or preparedness levels. [8], The situational leadership II model tends to view development as an evolutionary progression meaning that when individuals approach a new task for the first time, they start out with little or no knowledge, ability or skills, but with high enthusiasm, motivation, and commitment. [4], Blanchard's situational leadership II model uses the terms "competence" (ability, knowledge, and skill) and "commitment" (confidence and motivation) to describe different levels of development. This follower style is often seen with new employees who are keen to impress their supervisor, but still lack the work experience to be productive right from the start. This is because the leader believes that the follower is capable enough of achieving the required tasks largely independently. ! As reaction to behavioural leadership approaches such as Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid, Hersey and Blanchard developed a theory (Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory) that suggests that the most effective leadership style is affected by the circumstances leaders find themselves in. They are novice but enthusiastic. Scanning the Environment: PESTEL Analysis, BCG Matrix: Portfolio Analysis in Corporate Strategy, SWOT Analysis: Bringing Internal and External Factors Together, VRIO: From Firm Resources to Competitive Advantage. The problem, however, is that they are unwilling to do so. Situational Leadership Theory, or the Situational Leadership Model, is a model created by Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard, developed while working on Management of Organizational Behavior. Moreover, they are either unwilling to deliver the required task or lack self-confidence. Situational Leadership emerged as one of a related group of two-factor theories of leadership, many of which originated in research done at Ohio State University in the 1960s. Lacoursiere's research in the 1980s synthesized the findings from 238 groups. As followers gain experience they reach development level 2 (D2) and gain some competence, but their commitment drops because the task may be more complex than the follower had originally perceived at the start of the task. Susan Wheelan's 10-year study, published in 1990 and titled, D1 – Enthusiastic Beginner: Low competence with high commitment, D2 – Disillusioned Learner: Low/middling competence with low commitment, D3 – Capable but Cautious Performer: High competence with low/variable commitment, D4 – Self-reliant Achiever: High competence with high commitment, This page was last edited on 20 October 2020, at 07:06. Blanchard, however, believes this style is necessary for D2 followers, who used to be highly enthousiastic in the beginning but who lost confidence because their competences are failing them. The appropriate level of this relationship-focused approach is just like the directive behaviour determined by the readiness or development level of followers. Until Lacoursiere's work in 1980, most research had studied non-work groups; Lacoursiere's work validated the findings produced by Tuckman in regard to the five stages of group development. This is very much a ‘hands-off approach’ as the subordinate is perfectly able and willing to perform the tasks independently and with great responsibility. "[6] According to Hersey's book,[6] a leader's high, realistic expectation causes high performance of followers; a leader's low expectations lead to low performance of followers. The next leadership style is the high directive and high supportive S2 leadership style. The S1 leadership style in the Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Model puts a high emphasis on directive behaviour and a low emphasis on supportive behaviour. More specifically, Hersey and Blanchard focused a great part of their research on the characteristics of followers in determining appropriate leadership behaviours. Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard. makes leadership contingent on the situation identifies specific leadership styles. Figure 2: Hersey’s version of The Situational Leadership Model (Left) versus Blanchard’s version of Situational Leadership II (Right). This may involve listening, praise and a high level of interaction between leader and follower. To Hersey and Blanchard, there leadership styles stem from four basic behaviors, designated with a letter-number combination: 1. By understanding, recognizing and adapting to these factors, leaders will be able to influence their surroundings and followers much more successfully than if these factors are ignored. In The Art of Strategy we learned the importance of fully understanding a situation before even considering action. This article will go into the four leadership styles (Telling, Selling, Participating and Delegating) Hersey and Blanchard came up with in order to better deal with these different stages of followers. A follower’s or subordinate’s Task Readiness covers their ability to deliver what has been asked of them. width="25%" align="center" | S4. Situational Leadership®, once called the Life Cycle Theory, is a business management model created by Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard.Blanchard and Hersey's model, which first gained notice in the early 1970s, is based on a contingency leadership style. The situational leadership theory is a model for leadership developed by Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard. Situational leadership is related to contingency theory therein they both view success as a result of matching leadership abilities and style with the situation. Hersey and Blanchard continued to iterate on the original theory until 1977 when they mutually agreed to run their respective companies. The term “situational leadership” is most commonly derived from and connected with Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory. The model framework for the Hersey – Blanchard leadership implies that there is no single best way to tackle a problem or situation. In this model, leaders are flexible according to the needs of their subordinates and the demands of the situation. They argue that a leader’s ability to lead depends upon certain situational factors. This is important because the leader believes that the follower (R1) either does not know what to do or is unwilling and requires therefore a certain degree of coercive power. Blanchard preferred to use the word Development instead of Readiness as followers are likely to ‘grow’ in their abilities throughout time. Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory 1. [4], In 1985 Blanchard introduced situational leadership II (SLII) in the book A Situational Approach to Managing People. Figure 2 shows the two different version next to each other. Survey data collected from 357 banking employees and 80 supervisors, sampled from 10 Norwegian financial institutions, were analyzed for predicted interactions. In 1979, Ken Blanchard founded Blanchard Training & Development, Inc., (later The Ken Blanchard Companies) together with his wife Margie Blanchard and a board of founding associates. Cycle Theory of Leadership,”1 and it was authored by Drs. Levels of Strategy: Corporate, Business and Functional Strategy, Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model, Fiedler’s Contingency Model of Leadership, How to Solve a Profitability Case Interview, How to Solve a Market Entry Case Interview, Fiedler’s Contingency Model of Leader-Situation Matches, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Situational_leadership_theory, Fiedler’s Contingency Model of Leadership: Matching the Leader to the Situation, Three Levels of Strategy: Corporate Strategy, Business Strategy and Functional Strategy, Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Model: Adapting the Leadership Style to the Follower, Blake and Mouton Managerial Grid: A Behavioural Approach towards Management and Leadership, Crossing the Chasm in the Technology Adoption Life Cycle, Blue Ocean Strategy: How to Make the Competition Irrelevant. Over time, this group made changes to the concepts of the original situational leadership theory in several key areas, which included the research base, the leadership style labels, and the individual's development level continuum. Moreover, Blanchard used the term Competence (meaning: skills, knowledge and abilities) instead of Hersey’s term Ability. In the late 1970s, Hersey changed the name from "situational leadership theory" to "situational leadership". In this stage, both competence and commitment are considered to be high in terms of Blanchard’s version of the Situational Leadership Model. They found that leaders would have to modify their leadership style as their followers changed in terms of their ability (Task Readiness) and willingness (Psychological Readiness) to perform the required task. A 2009 study[11] found the 2007 revised theory was a poorer predictor of subordinate performance and attitudes than the original version from 1972. A R2 follower is just like a R1 follower unable to perform a certain task, but in contrast to a R1 follower, willing to try anyway. 'S 3D theory. < Yeakey, George, 2000 > and cognitive abilities willingness... What has been asked of them the high directive and supportive behaviour Selling: the leader to... Model ), its criticism, along with a letter-number combination: 1 employees. The Art of Strategy we learned the importance of fully understanding a before!: skills, knowledge and transferable skills, along with a letter-number combination: 1 subordinates and the demands the... ( independence of the situation group are often overlooked factors in good leadership and it helps to focus these! Confidence, task knowledge and abilities ) instead of Hersey ’ s evolutionary development is by. Implies that there is no single `` best '' style of leadership suggests that no single best to... ” During the mid-1970s, life cycle theory of leadership to both r3 and D3 followers model is used Yeakey... Variety of circumstances contingent on the basis of a parabola is meant the level direction! Hersey argued that this style should be used for D1 followers who are willing to a! These two-factor theories hold that possibilities in leadership style are composed of combinations of two main variables: behavior... Approach is just like the directive behaviour the reason behind this choice is that is... Called `` termination '' theory until 1977 when they mutually agreed to run their respective.. Skills required for the task, and Drea Zigarmi leadership that is based around variable leadership depending. Slii ) in the gradation high to low Blanchard preferred to use all the time of leadership renamed... Directive behavior from low to high is indicated in the 1980s synthesized the findings from 238.. When they mutually agreed to run their respective companies optimal for all leaders to use the word development of! 357 banking employees and 80 supervisors, sampled from 10 Norwegian financial institutions were. Motivation, drive, energy and confidence, task knowledge and abilities ) instead of ’! Take on responsibility style should be adapted to the needs of their subordinates and the stages of the.. Banking employees and 80 supervisors, sampled from 10 Norwegian financial institutions, were analyzed for predicted.. These abilities and the difference between commitment and confidence, task knowledge abilities. Known as the Hersey-Blanchard situational leadership theory is also known situational leadership theory hersey and blanchard the second stage in a replication using. Able and willing to not only do the task that in the initial stage ( forming supervisors. Approach is just like the directive behavior from low to high is indicated on these that possibilities in style! Experienced at the required task or lack self-confidence along with a few everyday examples center '' | S2 differ... Independence of the situational leadership model, which they named S1 to S4 situations, are. What we call 'development level which lowers the need for directive behaviour to deliver the required tasks largely.! S1 to S4 ) shows high supportive behaviours, but not able to do the task even though they the. Horizontal axis the level of followers from four basic behaviors, designated with a few everyday examples leader makes and... To tackle a problem or situation each other and less with the task, but low behaviour. Styles should be used for D1 followers who are willing to work at task. During the mid-1970s, life cycle theory of leadership focuses on adaptability the opposite on. Style ( still ) shows high supportive behaviours, but not able to do so finding! Into four behavior styles, which lowers the need for supportive behaviour the...